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  1. #1
    flexgolf's Avatar
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    Cool Lets talk about quantum mechanics!!

    Hey all you physics enthusiasts out there. What do you know about quantum mechanics?? pick a topic, any topic of interest to you. Hell you can pick as many topics as you want to discuss. I love quantum mechanics...but i guarantee no one here has a firm understanding of it. i wanna learn as much as i possibly can about QM.

    orrrrrr...particle physics. let me know what you know about areas of particle physics (i.e. experimental methods, standard quark model, modern research)

    here are some example topics

    quantum computing
    superluminal travel
    atomic/molecular structure
    schrodingers equation
    tunneling
    semiconductors

    standard quark model
    virtual particles (gravitons ect.)
    exchange particles
    scattering

  2. #2
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    Hey! let's not and say we did.

  3. #3
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    ok, i cant believe im going to get into this on an aas site, but here goes. explain to me heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and explain why no instrument can accurately measure position and velocity.

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    Originally posted by Decoder
    Hey! let's not and say we did.
    how about lets not look at threads that's way over our heads.. aka stop reading this thread

  5. #5
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    Originally posted by sin
    ok, i cant believe im going to get into this on an aas site, but here goes. explain to me heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and explain why no instrument can accurately measure position and velocity.
    the uncertainty priciple is the easiest theory to grasp, due to electron spin, either +1/2 or -1/2 , it is impossible to determine either where an electron is or how fast it is going at the same time

    hence the 'electron cloud' on the modern model of an atom

  6. #6
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    i think thats the pauli exclusion principle

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    Originally posted by withoutd0ubt


    the uncertainty priciple is the easiest theory to grasp, due to electron spin, either +1/2 or -1/2 , it is impossible to determine either where an electron is or how fast it is going at the same time

    hence the 'electron cloud' on the modern model of an atom
    thats a way of viewing it. ofcourse the spin is directly related to the momentum, hence if u dont know the momentum you can never be sure of of it.

    in terms of measurement.....
    lets say we have a detector that detects electrons (electrons impact on the detector surface). we have a specific measurement system. as the electron makes contact with the detector, the detector can sense this impact and the momentum of the electron will be known if the detector remains still. however, if some of the electrons momentum is transfered to the detector, the detector will move...and we would need another device to measure both the momentum of the detector and the momentum of the electron. so a domino effect occurs in which we continually need more and more devices to measure the system. becomes impossible to measure momentum if the detector moves at impact. if a mass collides into another mass, some momentum will be transfered so the detector will always move. now lets look at position. if the electron bounces off an object with infinite mass we can easily model its path and position. but if it hits a detetor, which moves when the electron hits it, we cant accurately determine where the electron will travel.

    in summary...uncertainty arises in a in a measurement because when something is measured, the measurement system moves. this leads to an uncertainty in both the momentum and the position. neither of which can be accurately meausred because the measurement system itself moves during the measurement.

    -is this clear? if not i can make a better explanation

  8. #8
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    Re: Lets talk about quantum mechanics!!

    What a nerd! Hey...let's talk about how you never get laid.

  9. #9
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    Originally posted by Decoder
    Hey! let's not and say we did.
    wow thats original. you would be surprised...there are intelligent people on this board. but yeah there are dummy's here for ya too (you arent lonely).

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    Re: Re: Lets talk about quantum mechanics!!

    Originally posted by Money Boss Hustla
    What a nerd! Hey...let's talk about how you never get laid.
    wow jackass. you read the thread title. chose to spend time making a comment. your cool.

    hey look at me im cool because there is a thread i dont understand. this kid is 20 years old and for sure will make 4 times more money than me. but thats ok though...cause im cool and i dis people with higher IQ's. more power to me cause im stupid.

  11. #11
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    Re: Re: Re: Lets talk about quantum mechanics!!

    Originally posted by flexgolf


    wow jackass. you read the thread title. chose to spend time making a comment. your cool.

    hey look at me im cool because there is a thread i dont understand. this kid is 20 years old and for sure will make 4 times more money than me. but thats ok though...cause im cool and i dis people with higher IQ's. more power to me cause im stupid.
    1. I'm not 20.
    2. I do not know if I make more money than you.
    3. I was tested at 131.
    4. Looks like I hit a nerve with the "you not getting laid" comment.

    Keep projecting your insecurities.

    BTW I loved your thread about not knowing if you had to do site injections or could you just inj. in your glutes to gain mass on the upper body. I couldn't believe I even read that...you shouldn't even be considering doing AS if you have questions like that! Cash it in lightweight.

  12. #12
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    looks like more than one person struck a nerve in here. i guess ill get out while there is still time. oh yeah, i havent been laid in a couple of weeks, but its because of the fina.

  13. #13
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    Hey, hey! people can't we all just get along?? lol. Seriously though, anyone with a science background like flexgolf's is an asset to the board IMO. I think this thread is interesting, but way beyond me as I am not a physics guy, but keep it going.

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    what insecurities do i have....im the one who is 20. yeah u did hit a nerve. not because of the getting laid comment. because as smart as u think u are....u make immature comments like ur in highschool. you act like you know some phychology. what does it say about u that u purposely come onto a thread like this just to bullshit with people? why dont u give urself an analysis and tell me what u come up with? my guess is u just wanna look cool for all your "AR buddies".

    yeah i am a nerd...ohh wow im tripple-majoring in math, physics and EE.
    i work out and play sports in my spare time. i party my ass off every weekend at college. yeah man....i guess because i like QM so im a nerd. if thats the case, i am...what shame.

  15. #15
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    I dont understand why you guys keep flaming him. It's a general discussion lounge where you can talk about your interests. Nobody is making you guys read this thread.

  16. #16
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    Originally posted by flexgolf
    what insecurities do i have....im the one who is 20. yeah u did hit a nerve. not because of the getting laid comment. because as smart as u think u are....u make immature comments like ur in highschool. you act like you know some phychology. what does it say about u that u purposely come onto a thread like this just to bullshit with people? why dont u give urself an analysis and tell me what u come up with? my guess is u just wanna look cool for all your "AR buddies".

    yeah i am a nerd...ohh wow im tripple-majoring in math, physics and EE.
    i work out and play sports in my spare time. i party my ass off every weekend at college. yeah man....i guess because i like QM so im a nerd. if thats the case, i am...what shame.
    HAHAHA!! I can't believe how riled up you're getting! Settle down there lightweight. It was a joke to begin with...did you not detect the smiley behind my original comment?

    Am I supposed to be impressed that you're in college? It does not impress me one bit...I give you credit for trying to do something with your life...but there are tonnes of people here that already have degrees (including myself). Maybe you should pick up some English classes next semester. Brutal spelling and grammar!

    Seriously lighten up and check your sensitivities at the door!

  17. #17
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    geezus some ppl take jokes too seriously, maybe just chill a bit, if you dont like a comment, ignore it.

    although i like reading this thread, i'm no physics guy myself, but i'd like to learn more.

    So all you physics guys share what you know, i prob wont understand 1/2 of it but you never know...

  18. #18
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    yeah well im done talkin about anything besides physics. for you guys that dont know much....ask anything!! i would love to share what i know...and maybe get some feedback. the best way to learn is to teach.

  19. #19
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    Originally posted by sin
    i think thats the pauli exclusion principle
    the pauli exclusion principle basically states that 2 electrons in one atom can be in the same state at the same time. for 2 electrons to be in the same energy level (orbital, shell) they need to have opposite spins (+- 1/2) . this holds true for all particles known as bosons. these opposite spin values give symmetry the orbital shapes of atoms.

    basically 2 identical electrons cant be in the same state in one atom. the best example is the innermost shell of an atom. in the first shell there are 2 electrons. because they are in the same shell they must have the same bound energy (which keeps them there). so for these 2 electrons to remain stable, they must have opposite spin values so that they arent in the same state.

    but what about other shells with 8 electrons?? in outer shells other quantum values including L (angular momentum) come into play giving rise to a variety of possible states electrons can exist in. i can elaborate on this if u want. there are essentially four quantum numbers that can desribe the wave function of an atom (it's orbital shapes, energy ect.). this allows for a variety of possible states for electrons to exist in, leading to complex orbital structures in large atoms.

  20. #20
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    so, your talking like s, p, d and f subshells? along this same note can you explain why the shapes of these orbitals are so complex? its seems to me that simplicity rules, and the shapes of these shells are overly complex.

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    Originally posted by sin
    so, your talking like s, p, d and f subshells? along this same note can you explain why the shapes of these orbitals are so complex? its seems to me that simplicity rules, and the shapes of these shells are overly complex.
    yes those are the shells i was discussing...but they are described and generalized in a variety of ways. essentially they are the energy levels of the atom.

    ohhhh yeah these shells are complex, ill find a link that models orbitals using schrodingers equation. and trust me its not simple to look at...especially cause everthing in quantum mechanics is a probabilistic interpretation. but fear not...i will show you a link that models atomic orbital structures. when looking at simple energy level diagrams, its easy to see how shells come about using bound energies and the pauli exclusion principle. ill get some additional info.

  22. #22
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    money boss hustla - why do you keep calling this kid a lightweight and making fun of him not knowing whether or not to do site injections when you are only 205 lb with 25% bf.... you're the lightweight and a fat fuck so IMO you're the one that shouldn't be looking to do any steroids .. if you didn't want to read the fucking thread then stay out of it !!!!

    by the way, 205 lbs with 25% bf is not sex appeal

  23. #23
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    Seriously here folks...lighten up. Maybe age is a factor...I don't know...but I can't believe how touchy and volatile you guys are. People can go into any thread they want and post wherever/whenever/whatever they want. Things have gone way too far over an amusing jab. Like I said earlier check your sensitivities at the door!!

    Actually 20-25% was my guess...I had it checked 2-3 weeks ago...and I was 15%. Not bad I guess...still would like to be in the single digits.

    As for the injections... senior members should know the basics of AS. A senior member should know that if you inj. into your glute the rest of your body will react from the AS. People look up to senior members on this board. It was just very shocking that this AS knowledge was not present in a senior member. Enough said on that subject.

    This discussion is done. Let it all go and carry on with your QM.

  24. #24
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    Originally posted by Money Boss Hustla
    Seriously here folks...lighten up. Maybe age is a factor...I don't know...but I can't believe how touchy and volatile you guys are. People can go into any thread they want and post wherever/whenever/whatever they want. Things have gone way too far over an amusing jab. Like I said earlier check your sensitivities at the door!!

    Actually 20-25% was my guess...I had it checked 2-3 weeks ago...and I was 15%. Not bad I guess...still would like to be in the single digits.

    As for the injections... senior members should know the basics of AS. A senior member should know that if you inj. into your glute the rest of your body will react from the AS. People look up to senior members on this board. It was just very shocking that this AS knowledge was not present in a senior member. Enough said on that subject.

    This discussion is done. Let it all go and carry on with your QM.
    just to let ya know before i deleted the thread i made another response to maybe get feedback. its obvious u get a full body effect for a lower body injection. what i was trying to get at was are there basically any added benefits to spot injections. people often claim they get their best gains in the areas they inject. i was wondering if there was any scientific validity to that. or just an scientific explanation of that occurence.

  25. #25
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    Originally posted by flexgolf


    just to let ya know before i deleted the thread i made another response to maybe get feedback. its obvious u get a full body effect for a lower body injection. what i was trying to get at was are there basically any added benefits to spot injections. people often claim they get their best gains in the areas they inject. i was wondering if there was any scientific validity to that. or just an scientific explanation of that occurence.
    Let's not get into this again.

    Here's a spot injections post from a different site....

    "OK as most of you know I do believe that these encourage local growth, due to stretching the muscle fascia over a period of time. But many people think that if you inject the steroid into a muscle it will bind to that muscle and it DOES NOT, I'm now going to try and explain why it doesn't.

    It’s simple, once I explain the whole ester thing. Esterification is a process where a carboxylic acid is attached to the steroid molecule. This makes it more difficult for the blood to pick it up and carry it into circulation, and likewise slows the rate the drug can leave the injection site. As a result, an inactive deposit of steroid can sit at the site of injection, releasing slowly for days or weeks into the blood stream. Once free in the blood the ester is removed quickly by enzymes, and the base steroid is rendered active. Different esters take longer than others at one end we have esters like Propionate with quite a short life and at the other end we have esters like Decanoate with a long life.

    The esterified steroids you inject are useless at binding to the local receptors (or to any receptors) until the ester is removed. Once the ester is removed the steroid is active.

    The place where 98% of the ester will be removed is in the blood stream. 2% in the muscle cell. The enzymes which remove the esters are found in the blood stream.

    So when you site inject a drug like deca , it has to be taken from the injection site, into the blood stream where the ester is removed making it active.

    So, when the gear is active, it has left the muscle it was injected into and is in the blood stream, now every muscle has as good chance in binding with the steroid. The steroid will bind with the androgen receptor, making a hormone-receptor complex, then enters the cell nucleus, where it binds to DNA, and you grow!

    That of course leaves ester free gear.

    If the steroid doesn't have an ester, then a small percentage of the steroid can bind directly with the receptor of the injected muscle, before the majority of it is released into the blood stream. This will help to increase the growth of the local muscle.

    Types of drugs to use. Winstrol , Test Suspension, injectible Anadrol , Injectable Dbol , and I'm sure some others that I can't think of at the moment. "

  26. #26
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    Okay no more talking about anything except QM. I don't want to be a part of any more "hijacking".

  27. #27
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    does anyone know why we can not isolate a quark....like we have been able to do with electrons and protons??

  28. #28
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    doesnt it have to do with the sensitivity of the test? i know that they were building a supercollider to go further into the details but funding was cut for the project. i know that they can be detected in the smash, and isn't there three of them up, down, ?

  29. #29
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    ive gotta look at my poster later..but it depends what you are colliding to determine what quarks you produce. there are actually 6 quarks which all vary in mass. i did some research earlier. it turns out that we cant isolate quarks..because the energy required to isolate them actually produces additional quarks (hahaha). we can detect them through scattering in which we isolate a nucleus, fire a small particle inside the nucleus...and it can scatter in a variety of directions.

  30. #30
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    here are some example topics

    quantum computing
    superluminal travel
    atomic/molecular structure
    schrodingers equation
    tunneling
    semiconductors
    ===============================================

    Hah . . . I know something about semiconductors, used to make 'em in a wafer fab . . . ran steppers (photolithography). It's a dirty business, though . . . the factory looked like the inside of a Borg ship, the pipes were full of stuff that was either flammable or toxic or both. Fumes of god-knows-what everywhere. Tanks of hydrofluoric acid . . .
    The place caught fire one day and the damn fire alarm wasn't working.
    Man oh man, I used to think killing dogs at night (used to work for the city pound) was the worst job I ever had, but this one was worse . . .
    Anyway, I know a bit about their structure . . . What's really neat are the semiconductor chips that have moving parts on 'em. like the DMD (digital mirror device) and the work-alike by Cypress Semi. I understand they've built some mini mini machines like pumps and electric motors on chips. Dunno what they're gonna use 'em for. Some folks in R&D were working with neurons, trying to get them to talk to semiconductor chips and such . . . eventually will end up implanting calculator chips in the brain so we can all multiply, divide, do square roots, polar/rectangular conversions & etc in the blink of an eye. Scary stuff, part of the brave new world.
    But damn if those wafer fabs aren't the nastiest workplaces on earth . . .

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    Gawd Damn you guys are smart....I fuckin wish I could understand what the hell you are talking about.....good job

    You have my respect....sciences scare the shit out of me....

    Good Thread!!!!!!

  32. #32
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    Originally posted by Tock
    here are some example topics

    quantum computing
    superluminal travel
    atomic/molecular structure
    schrodingers equation
    tunneling
    semiconductors
    ===============================================

    Hah . . . I know something about semiconductors, used to make 'em in a wafer fab . . . ran steppers (photolithography). It's a dirty business, though . . . the factory looked like the inside of a Borg ship, the pipes were full of stuff that was either flammable or toxic or both. Fumes of god-knows-what everywhere. Tanks of hydrofluoric acid . . .
    The place caught fire one day and the damn fire alarm wasn't working.
    Man oh man, I used to think killing dogs at night (used to work for the city pound) was the worst job I ever had, but this one was worse . . .
    Anyway, I know a bit about their structure . . . What's really neat are the semiconductor chips that have moving parts on 'em. like the DMD (digital mirror device) and the work-alike by Cypress Semi. I understand they've built some mini mini machines like pumps and electric motors on chips. Dunno what they're gonna use 'em for. Some folks in R&D were working with neurons, trying to get them to talk to semiconductor chips and such . . . eventually will end up implanting calculator chips in the brain so we can all multiply, divide, do square roots, polar/rectangular conversions & etc in the blink of an eye. Scary stuff, part of the brave new world.
    But damn if those wafer fabs aren't the nastiest workplaces on earth . . .

    god damn thats interesting. do u have any details on how they are attempting to connect nuerons to those calculator chips. i can use an implant like that.

    tell us more about the semi-conductors you made...and maybe what they are most commenly used for. their general structures and such. id love to learn a thing or 2 about whatever you can share. dont be afraid to be detailed, if i havent heard it before ill research it. thanx for the post man. shit like this is why i love physics...and science in general

  33. #33
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    god damn thats interesting. do u have any details on how they are attempting to connect nuerons to those calculator chips. i can use an implant like that.
    ====================================
    I'm clueless on the details, but check out this link:
    www.nature.com/nsu/011115/011115-7.html



    tell us more about the semi-conductors you made...and maybe what they are most commenly used for. their general structures and such. id love to learn a thing or 2 about whatever you can share. dont be afraid to be detailed, if i havent heard it before ill research it.
    ==========================================

    Hah . . . not afraid of details, eh? Well, in the words of Bela Lugosi, "Be afraid . . . be very very afraid!" The technical stuff gets pretty dry . . . reading a phone book would be more interesting. But here's the general gist . . .

    Silicon and germanium are the two elelments generally used for semiconductors, because of their electrical properties. They allow electricity to flow not quite as well as a conductor (like copper) but don't resist electrical flow quite as well as a non-conductor (like wire insulation). But when you add a tiny bit of arsenic or gallium to a semiconductor material, the result has useful electrical applications.
    In years gone by, they used a triode tube (like those glowing glass things you see in the back of old radios) to convert AC (alternating current) to DC (direct current). Eventually someone figured out they could do the same thing for a lot less $$$ by taking two chunks of germanium, one with a bit of an element that added a few extra electrons (N-type) and one with a bit of an element that subtracted a few extra electrons (P-type), side by side, stick a wire in both end, and let those two chunks of semiconductor change the AC to DC. Eventually someone figured out they could use 3 chunks of material, one N-type between two P-types (PNP) or one P-type between two N-types (NPN) to amplify electrical signals. Those little devices are called transistors. And 'round about 1958 some guy (Jack Kilby, see
    ( http://www.dallasnews.com/specialrep....44113f0e.html ) figured out how to put multiple transistors, capacitors, and resistors on one little piece of silicon, and the Integrated Circuit was born.

    That's it for now . . . I used to work in a semiconductor wafer fab where they made all sorts of chips . . . I could describe that if you're interested . . . any description will probably include a rant 'cause I spent 4 of my 5 years there badgering the management to bring the place up to minimum safety standards (gawd almighty, it was nasty--toxic fumes everywhere, chemical spills, folks getting sick--ugh).
    But anyway, that's it for now . . .

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    can explain how the pnp and npn transitors amplify electricty? ive been trying to research amplification in the past..but i dont understand the chemistry..or should i say physics behind it.

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    Ok, I'll give it a try . . .

    First we gotta start out with diodes.
    Those are semiconductor devices made with two differently doped (had elements mixed with 'em that had either extra electrons in the outer ring or had a shortage of extra electrons in the outer ring) bits of silicon (or germanium, though most are made with silicon these days). So your device will look like
    ---wire---NNNNNPPPPP-----wire----
    The N side is N-type silicon, with extra electrons, the P side is P-type, which is missing a few electrons.
    . Ok, right at the point where the N-type and the P-type meet (which is called the "depletion zone"), there's something going on there. The extra electrons on the N side jump to the P side, and as a result, a voltage develops, about 7/10ths volt for silicon, 3/10ths for germanium. From here on, we'll deal just with the silicon stuff . . .
    Ok, so now we've got a diode that looks like
    ----wire----NNNNNNDPPPPP-----wire----
    Right where the D is is where the depletion zone is.
    Now, if we apply a voltage, say from a 1.5 volt flashlight battery, across it so that the negative side is connected to the right wire and the positive side goes to the left wire, something will happen inside the diode, but the electrical current won't flow. The 1.5 volts will draw the positive charges towards the negative side of the battery, and will draw the negative charges toward the left side of the battery. This will make the depletion zone bigger, so now you end up with
    ----wire----NNNDDDDDPPP-----wire----
    Inside the depletion zone all the silicon atoms have 8 electrons in the outer ring and they won't conduct electrical current, so nothing happens. Of course, if you applied a lot more voltage, the depletion zone would further increase, and if you put too much voltage on it, you'd burn the thing up.
    Ok, now turn the battery around the other way. Negative on the left wire, positive on the right. Now the electrons will flow (oh yeah, in semiconductor theory, electrons flow from negative to positive. In automobiles, mechanics say it flows from the "hot" (or positive) to ground (negative), so don't let those grease monkeys confuse you here). The reason they'll flow is that the negative force from the battery pushes the extra electrons in the N side all the way through to the P side, which is full of positive charges to carry them all the way to the positive side of the flashlight battery. So now you have
    ----wire----NNNNNNNnnnnnn-----wire----
    There are still more electrons in the N side, but the n side is nothing but the former P side carrying as many electrons as the flashlight battery will allow.
    . Ok, there's one more thing ya gotta know about the depletion region. Remember that I mentioned there's a 7/10 volt charge built up there because of the interaction between the N and P-type silicon? Well, the first 7/10 volt is used to overcome that barrier, and it does so gradually from just over zero to 7/10 (keep this in mind for the part on transistors). If all you had was a half-volt battery, it wouldn't have enough oomph to overcome the barrier and no current would flow. Again, if you applied way too much voltage, too much current would flow and you'd burn the thing up. So.

    There are various types of diodes . . . Zener diodes are constructed so they regulate the output voltage, say to 5 volts, while anywhere from 7 to 20 volts were applied to it. Others do other things, I forget what 'cause it's been a while since I've messed with this stuff, but this is pretty much the way diodes in general work. You can use 1 of 'em to change AC current into DC, or hook 4 of 'em end to end in a circle and make what's called a "bridge rectifier," which is a more efficient way to convert AC to DC. But that gets into circuit analysis, which we won't get into tonight . . .

    And that's enough for tonight . . . I'll tackle transistors tomorrow . . .

    Not bad for typing this shit at 3 am, eh?

  36. #36
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    sweet...great post. i completely understand everything you just wrote....have u taught it before??


    ill be looking forward to transistors

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    sweet...great post. i completely understand everything you just wrote....have u taught it before??
    ==============================================

    Not really . . . Just had a good instructor for my semiconductor 101 class back in 1979 (geez, that's what, 24 years ago . . . geez . . .)

    Ok, now on to the Reader's Digest explaination of transistor theory . . .

    Here's as good a diagram of a transistor construction as I can do in ascii characters:

    -Emitter------EEEEEBCCCCC------Collector-
    . |
    . |
    . wire
    . |
    . Base
    . |

    It's got 3 sections as compared to the diode's 2. If the middle part (the Base) is made of N-type semiconductor material, the ends will be P-type. This configuration is called a PNP transistor. You can also have an NPN transistor, N-type on the ends and P-type in the middle.

    Ok, remember the "depletion zone" the diode had right where the P-type material and the N-type material met? You've got that same thing going on here in the transistor on both sides of the Base. So what you've got in a NPN transistor (which is what we'll use in this explanation) is:

    .-------------------------
    | - - - - -|+ +|- - - - - |
    .-------------------------
    N P N

    extra electrons in the N sections, and missing electrons in the P. Right on each border though, the extra electrons on the N jump to the "Holes" on the P.
    Now, remember I mentioned that there's a .7 voltage right at the depletion zone? Well, same thing is going on here, only it's in two places. Cool.
    Ok, we're going to hook up the two wires coming from a magnetic microphone to the base and collector along with a .6v battery, then we're gonna hook up a small speaker and a flashlight battery (negative side to the Emitter, positive side to one side of the speaker, and the other speaker connection we'll hook up to the transistor's Collector) to the works. So here's what we've got now:


    -Emitter +----EEEEEBCCCCC------+--Collector------------+
    . | | - | |
    . | battery .6 volts | |
    . | | + | |
    . | +------C<|---+ |
    . | mic |
    . +---------i|i|i|---------------xxxxx-------------+
    . - battery + xxxxx
    . xxxxxxxxxx speaker
    . xxxxxxxxxxxxxx


    Ok . . . we're ready to roll.

    You pick up the microphone and sound comes out of the speaker. Hah.
    The 50 ml bottle of 200 mg/ml AS question is this: Why?

    Well, and I should have mentioned this earlier, is that the electrons move from negative to positive. Ok, keeping that in mind . . .
    the electrons from the microphone's battery is .6 volts, almost enough to overcome the .7 volt difference in the base-collector depletion zone. We'll say the microphone will produce about another .1 volt, which will break the barrier down (actually, the microphone will produce different voltages, depending on how loud you talk into it). As the voltage here fluctuates between slightly over and under .7 volt, the depletion zone is coming down and going back up right along with the voltage.
    There's no problem with the electrons hopping from the N to P material (see the explaination in the diode section for why); just from P to N.
    Ok, now if we attach a speaker and apply some power between works (the emitter and the collector), we'll have the tiny voltage fluctuations coming from the microphone controlling the flow of electrons between the base and collector, and the "awesome" power of the flashlight battery will be unleashed to drive the speaker . . . acts sorta like an electronic lever and fulcrum (a small force on one side, more on the other).

    To sorta sum it all up, you got three chunks of semiconductor material, and electricity will flow from the N to the P, but not through the P to the other N unless you add a bias current to overcome the voltage in the depletion zone. So you give that part of the transistor some juice, and the whole works open up. Take a little of that juice away, and the output goes way down. Add a little more juice, and the output goes way up.
    And this, my friend, is how and why a transistor works. At least, as best as I can recall through the haze of 30+ years . . .
    . Oh yeah, this is just the general principle . . . in real life you'd have to add resistors and capacitors to get the thing to actually work. But that's a bit out of the scope of this explaination . . . this is just the general gist . . . and that's all you're going to get tonight (it's 4:00 am and I'm gonna crash) . . .
    Hope all this is helpful . . .

    Next in the series would be circuit analysis, but to do diagrams I'd need a better way to do diagrams and etc . . . but I'm sure there are lots of websites (well, a few) that cover this stuff . . .

  38. #38
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    Geez, those diagrams didn't post so well, did they . . . hah . . . oh well . . . some days you're the windshield and other days you're the bug . . .

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    i get the jist of the diagram..good explanation, i may have to use this info my next semester in electronics lab

    thanx a bunch

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