Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic field on TSH and thyroid hormones in rats.

Koyu A, Cesur G, Ozguner F, Akdogan M, Mollaoglu H, Ozen S.

Department of Physiology, Suleyman Demirel University, School of Medicine, 32260 Isparta, Turkey. ahmetkoyu@tnn.net

In this study, the effects of exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and triiodothronine-thyroxin (T3-T4) hormones levels of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Thirty rats were used in three independent groups, 10 of which were control (without stress and EMF), 10 of which were exposed to 900 MHz EMF and 10 of which were sham-exposed. The exposures were performed 30 min/day, for 5 days/week for 4 weeks to 900 MHz EMF. Sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the study groups except with no EMF exposure. The concentration of TSH and T3-T4 hormones in the rat serum was measured by using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method for TSH and a radio-immunoassay (RIA) method for T3 and T4 hormones. TSH values and T3-T4 at the 900 MHz EMF group were significantly lower than the sham-exposed group (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in serum TSH values and T3-T4 hormone concentrations between the control and the sham-exposed group (p>0.05). These results indicate that 900 MHz EMF emitted by cellular telephones decrease serum TSH and T3-T4 levels.
Diurnal variations of plasma growth hormone, thyrotropin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine in streptozotocin-diabetic and food-restricted rats.

Ortiz-Caro J, Gonzalez C, Jolin T.

The pattern of spontaneous GH, TSH, T4, and T3 secretion has been studied in male rats in response to a 15-day period of streptozotocin diabetes or food restriction. Beginning at 0900 h, groups of control (C), food-restricted (FR), diabetic (D), and insulin -treated D rats were killed every 60-90 min for a 8-h period. Food restriction resulted in a significant depression of the GH, TSH, T4, and T3 peaks, whereas diabetes caused complete suppression of episodic secretion of each hormone. Insulin (6 U/100 g BW X day for 12 days) administration to D rats restored the normal pattern of secretion. In D and FR rats, pituitary GH concentrations were lower than in C rats, whereas pituitary TSH concentrations were similar to those in controls. Thus, as compared to C rats, FR and D rats showed an inhibition in GH, TSH, T4, and T3 secretion, most marked in D animals. Since diabetes is associated with a deficiency of circulating thyroid hormones, the potential roles of T4 and T3 on pituitary GH concentration and secretion in D rats were evaluated. Treatment of D rats with insulin (3 U/100 g BW X day), T4 (1.8 micrograms/100 g BW X day), or T3 (0.30 microgram/100 g BW X day) for 12 days resulted in a significant but limited increase in pituitary GH content. When administered together with insulin, the net effects of T4 or T3 with insulin appeared additive. T4 administration to D rats produced a significant though limited increase in plasma GH concentrations and weight gain, whereas both values were unaffected by T3. Simultaneous administration of T4 and insulin resulted in significant increased plasma GH concentration to levels greater than those in C rats. However, plasma GH levels in rats treated with T3 plus insulin were greater than those in D rats, but lower than in C animals. The results indicate that the decreased pituitary GH content of D rats can be corrected, at least in part, by T4 and T3.
Effects of oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on concentrations of plasma lipids, concentration and composition of very-low-density lipoproteins, and glucose dynamics in healthy adult mares.

Frank N, Sommardahl CS, Eiler H, Webb LL, Denhart JW, Boston RC.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy adult horses administered levothyroxine sodium (L-T4). ANIMALS: 12 healthy adult mares. PROCEDURE: 8 horses received an incrementally increasing dosage of L-T4 (24, 48, 72, or 96 mg of L-T4/d) for weeks 1 to 8. Each dose was provide between 7 AM and 8 AM in the morning grain meal for 2 weeks. Four additional horses remained untreated. Serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were measured and composition of VLDL examined in samples obtained between 8 AM and 9 AM at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Glucose dynamics were assessed by use of a combined IV glucose-insulin tolerance test (IVGITT) conducted before and at the end of the 8-week treatment period. Data for each combined IVGITT were interpreted by use of the minimal model. RESULTS: Plasma TG, TC, and VLDL concentrations significantly decreased over time in treated horses. At the completion of the 8-week treatment period, mean plasma VLDL concentration was 46% of the mean value for week 0 in treated horses. Insulin sensitivity significantly increased (> 2-fold) in treated horses, but glucose effectiveness and net insulin response were not affected. Levothyroxine sodium significantly increased the rate of insulin disposal. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Administration of L-T4 decreases blood lipid concentrations, improves insulin sensitivity, and increases insulin disposal in horses. Levothyroxine sodium may have potential as a treatment for horses with reduced insulin sensitivity.
Effects of recombinant growth hormone therapy on thyroid hormone concentrations.

Kalina-Faska B, Kalina M, Koehler B.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland. majak_2001@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are numerous, often contradictory reports on the effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy on thyroid function. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of such therapy on serum concentrations of thyroid hormones in GH-deficient children euthyroid prior to the treatment, and to determine the necessity of thyroid hormone administration in these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 32 GH-deficient patients in the first stage of sexual development, in whom disorders of thyroid function could be excluded. The inclusion criteria were based on clinical examination and levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), thyrotropin (TSH) before and after stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Recombinant growth hormone (rGH) (Genotropin 16U, Pharmacia) was administered at a dose of 0.7 U/kg/week. Fasting blood samples were drawn before treatment and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of therapy. Thyroid hormones were measured using RIA and IRMA methods. RESULTS: There were no physical signs of hypothyroidism in the patients examined during 12 months of rGH administration, and the satisfactory growth rate was achieved. T4 levels decreased in the first 3 months but remained within the normal range, and then returned to the values prior to the treatment. A similar trend was observed for fF4, with 28.5% of patients exhibiting fF4 levels below the normal in the 3rd month. An increase during the first 3 months of therapy was observed in the cases of T3 (statistically non-significant) and fT3, and these values then fell to levels within the normal range of patients' age. During treatment, TSH levels decreased but remained within the normal range. CONCLUSIONS: A transient decrease in T4 concentrations in the 3rd month with unchanged T3 and an increase in fT3 concentrations probably result from the effect of rGH on the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. The results obtained do not support the use of thyroid hormone therapy with levothyroxine during the first year of rGH therapy in patients who are initially euthyroid.
In a Nutshell:

1-Cell phones decrease serum TSH and T3-T4 levels which could lead to weight gain

2-T4 and insulin use together increase plasma GH conecentration and that decreased pituitary GH content of Diabetic rats can be corrected, at least in part, by T4 and T3.

3-supplementation with T4 decreases blood lipid concentrations, improves insulin sensitivity, and increases insulin disposal

4-During Growth hormone therapy : T4 levels decreased in the first 3 months but remained within the normal range, and then returned to the values prior to the treatment , but patients did not show any signs of hypothyroidism