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  1. #1
    Mallet's Avatar
    Mallet is offline Anabolic Member
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    Dec 2001
    Canada - TO

    Detoxifying Your Liver Phase 2

    Phase-two detoxification relies primarily on a biochemical process known as conjugation. Conjugation involves the binding of a toxin with a substance that makes it water-soluble. Once it is water soluble, it can be excreted from the body. There are several different conjugating substances used during this process:
    The most important of these substances is the antioxidant glutathoine. In the liver, glutathoine conjugates by attaching its own sulfur group compounds with toxins, thus creating water-soluble compounds that can be excreted in the urine. In the presence of oxidative substances, glutathoine is readily oxidized and is able to protect cellular proteins from free radical damage.
    Other substances used in phase-2 detoxification are glycine, cysteine, and glucuronic acid. The amino acid glycine is important for the conjugation of chemicals like the food additive benzoate. Cysteine is crucial for the process of sulfation. In this process, sulfur molecules from cysteine conjugate substances like bacterial toxins from the gut, heavy metals, and hormones. In a similar process, known as methylation, methyl groups conjugate circulating estrogens. Therefore, slow methylation can lead to an increase in estrogen-related disorders. The amino acid methoinine is a major source of methyl groups used for methylation.
    Glucuronic acid conjugates drugs such as aspirin and menthol, food additives, and hormones, especially estrogen. An iherited weakness in the glucuronidation process is known as Gilberts syndrome. This condition may be more common than realized. It is characterized by yellowing of the skin, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, weakness, and fatigue, among other symptoms, people using large amounts of anadrol have probably come across some or all of these symptoms.
    There are several variables that influence glucuronidation. Insufficient levels of beneficial bacteria in the gut, the presence of unfriendly flora in the gut, or a low-fibre diet can all contribute to increasing the enzyme beta-glucuronidase, which cleaves (removes) the glucuronide molecule form its target (estrogen). For example, glucuronide attaches itself to estrogen to be excreted. If it is cleaved off, then the estrogen is free to be reabsorbed into ther system. Calcium D-glucarate is a nutraceutical developed that inhibits beta glucuronidase and therefore enhances the binding and elimination of estrogen. If you have estrogen dominant chemistry, consider taking 600-1,000 mg a day of calcium D-glucarate.
    Acetyl coenzyme-A (acetyl-CoA) is a compound that detoxifies substances in a process known as acetylation, a chemical process of detoxification. For example, acetyl-CoA conjugates sulfs drugs. An iherited weakness in the ability to acetylate can lead to an intolerance of sulfa drugs. Another cayse of sensitivities to sulfur-containing foods (such as sulfites) and drugs is a weakness in the phase two process of sulfation. This detoxification pathway requires the enzyme sulfite oxidase to metabolize sulfur compounds.
    Most of the phase two detoxification pathways are dependant on two groups of substances: amino acids and properly functioning enzymes. Each pathway requires its own unique enzymes. For example, the enzyme required to catalyze the transfer of sulphate groups in sulfation is called sulfotransferase (s-transferace). The enzyme needed for methylation is called methyltranferase. UDP-glucuronyl transferase is needed for glucuronidation and sulfite oxidase is necessary for sulfoxidation.
    If these enzymes are in short supply or are functioning poorly, phase-two detoxification will be inhibited. These enzymes can be thought of as the keys that start the engine to your detoxification processes. Unfortunately, the effects of being exposed to several toxic substances simultaneously are magnified by the damage they inflict on enzymes. Not only do these compounds induce toxic and free radical damage, but they also linger in the body longer due to slowed phase-two detoxification and can even bind to enzymes to alter their activity.
    When a person is low in certain amino acids such as glycine, methoinine, or cysteine, the bodies ability to perform detoxification processes is compromised. Other amino acid imbalances can influence immune function, metabolism, mood, blood sugar regulation, and neurological function.
    Anything that impairs enzymes, or their pathways, in phase-two detoxification results in what is known as pathalogical detoxification. In cases of pathalogical detoxification, phase-two cannot detoxify compounds at the same rate that phase-one metabolizes them. As was mentioned earlier, some of the metabolites generated from phase-one detoxification, known as reactive intermediate metabolites, are highly toxic. If not cleared by phase-two, these metabolites can accumulate and generate extensive damage. A low protein diet (which fails to provide adequate amino acids), nutrient deficiencies, and the use of non-*********, anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids), which include ibuprofen (motrin) indomethacin (indocin), fenoprofen (nalfon), sulindac (clinoril), and many others, can all lead to pathalogical detoxification.


    * Low-protein diets

    * Non********* anti-inflammatory drugs


    * Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower)

    * eggs

    * fish oils

    * leeks

    * limonene (from lemons)

    * milk thistle seed (sylibum marianum)

    * onions

    * raw garlic


    * Alpha Lipoic Acid

    * folic acid

    * magnesium

    * manganese

    * methoinine

    * N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

    * Selenium

    * Taurine

    * Vitamins B2 (riboflavin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B12 (cyanocobalamin), and C

    * Zinc.

    When the liver is operating optimally, phase one and ophase two work effeciently at protecting the body against foreign substances. The system breaks down, however, when the rate of exposure to toxins is greater than it can handle. The more toxins that build up in the body, the greater the demand will be on the liver to detoxify them. The more these toxins hand around, the greater the chance to start damaging our cellular structures such as our mitochondria (small cellular components known as the powerhouse of the cell responsible for energy production and cellular respiration) and DNA. If the liver doesn't receive the necessary nutrients it needs to detoxify and excrete these substances as nontoxic products, it can become overwhelmed. When it is unable to manage toxins effectively, the liver may release them to other organs and tissues and adversely inpair them.

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Dec 2003
    Excellent again, Mallet. Thanks for taking the time to put together such a string of great posts.

  3. #3
    fitnessNY's Avatar
    fitnessNY is offline Senior Member
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    Feb 2004
    Great post -- Thanks!

  4. #4
    Da Bull's Avatar
    Da Bull is offline Banned
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    Sep 2003
    Agreed..very informative stuff...thanks Mallet!!!

    Quote Originally Posted by einstein1905
    Excellent again, Mallet. Thanks for taking the time to put together such a string of great posts.

  5. #5
    Bigun's Avatar
    Bigun is offline Senior Member
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    Jul 2003
    United Kingdom
    Awesome, thanks for the info Mallet!

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