Thread: Nutrient Timing
07-07-2005, 03:06 PM #1
okay, i really want to share some of the info from this book, and since i can't find it on PDF/online, and nobody else seems to have access to it, and since i'm going to have a lot of spare time soon, i was going to start posting, VERBATIM, some key chapters from it here...if anyone's interested, check back periodically...i'm a fairly fast typer so it shouldnt take too long
07-07-2005, 03:31 PM #2AR Hall of Fame
- Join Date
- Dec 2002
You wanna type all that out?
Better hope you have an an interested audience bro, or else you'll get carpal tunnel for nada!
07-07-2005, 03:39 PM #3
I am gonna be reading with alot of interest
07-07-2005, 03:48 PM #4
wait ill try to find it rite now....hold on
07-07-2005, 03:56 PM #5
Taken directly from the book Nutrient Timing: The Future of Sports Nutrition by John Ivy, PhD. and Robert Portman, PhD.
NTS (Nutrient Timing System) ENERGY PHASE (preworkout)
1. Increase Nutrient Delivery to Muscles and Spare Muscle Glycogen and Protein
Although glycogen depletion has traditionally been the concern of endurance athletes, it is also an important issue for strength athletes. Muscle glycogen levels following multiple sets can be reduced as much as 40%. Doubling the intensity of the workout doubles the breakdown.
ATP and creatine phosphate provide most of the energy for muslce contraction, but glycolysis still plays an important role. Between sets, muscle cells use the glycolytic pathway to regenerate ATP. By consuming a carbohydrate or carbohydrate/protein sports drink during your workout, you can preserve muscle glycogen and remain strong throughout your workout.
Haff and colleagues studied the effect of carb supplementation during resistance exercise. They found that when the carb supplements were provided, the decline in muscle glycogen was 50% less and that subjects could perform more work than subjects receiving flavored water.
The latest research now shows that the addition of protein to a carb supplement during resistance exercise offers further advantages in terms of preserving muslce protein, increasing protein synthesis, and even extending endurance.
Druing extended exercise, amino acids--principally the BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and v****e--may supply up to 15% of the muscles' energy needs. The use of some BCAAs for energy can be increased by as much as 500%, depending on the intensity and duration of the exercise. The addition of protein to a carb supplement promotes the metabolism of the ingested protein and lessens the demand for amino acid release from the muscles.
Recent studies coming out of the University of Texas Health Science Center in Galveston suggest that when protein is added to a carb supplement and provided at the beginning of exercise, there is even an increase in protein synthesis after exercise.
Finally, the addition of protein to a carb supplement has been shown to extend muscular endurance. Researchers from the University of Texas in Austin found that a carb/protein drink improved endurance 57% compared with water and 24% compared with a carb/electrolyte drink. The improvement in endurance was thought to be due to a sparing of muscle glycogen and possibly to the preferential metabolism of the ingested protein.
2. Limit Immune System Suppresion
A second objective of the NTS during the Energy Phase is limiting immune system suppresion. During moderate intensity exercise, immune function is heightened, increasing resistance to infection. However, as discussed, with strenuous exercise, the immune system is suppressed, and the risk of infection is thereby increased.
The immune system is closely linked to the neuroendocrince system, which controls the release of hormones. During strenuous and sustained exercise, this system is activated, causing the release of cortisol. Most of the immunosuppressive responses caused by intense exercise correlate with increases in blood cortisol levels. Cortisol lowers the concentration and activities of many of the important immune cells that fight infection.
Interestingly, blood cortisol levels can be regulated to a significant degree during exercise by controlling glucose availability. Bishop and colleagues showed that when athletes were given a 6% carb solution during exercise, cortisol levels dropped by almost 80% compared with subjects receiving water.
Because of the high correlation between cortisol and immune system suppression, it is logical that carb supplementation would limit the suppressive effects of exercise on the immune system. In fact, this has been confirmed, most notably by David Nieman and colleagues at Appalachian State University. These researchers have compared a number of immune system parameters during exercise with and without carb supplementation. They found that subjects receiving carb supplementation during intense exercise had lower blood cortisol levels and limited immune suppression--as indicated by a lessened T cell and NK cell reduction--compared with subjects receiving placebo.
Carb supplementation provided dual benefit during exercise...maintaining blood glucose helps maintain immune function while decreasing cortisol levels.
During resistance exercise, cortisol levels can increase fivefold. Strength athletes who ignore the benefits of nutrient supplementation during their workouts place themselves at a greater risk of experiencing the immune-suppressive effects of cortisol, which include a transient weakening of the body's major mechanisms of fighting infection.
It is also important to note...that strength athletes who severely restrict their daily carb intake may be more susceptible to infection.
3. Minimize Muscle Damage
The third important objective of Nutrient Timing during the Energy Phase is to reduce muscle damage. This damage is beneficial to a degree because it stimulates the remodeling process, which leads to larger and stronger muscles. However, the damage to the muscles must be repaired before the remodeling process can begin. Because there is no single cause of exercise-related muscle damage, nutritional intervention must address all the causes.
Carb supplementation during exercise reduces the rise in cortisol and decreases specific agents responsible for producing inflammation. Bishop and colleagues from Longborough University in England showed that carb supplementation could reduce biochemical markers of inflammation by almost 50%.
Supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E and C and BCAAs may also help minimize muscle damage. While there does not appear to be a performance benefit from vitamins C and E, Rokitzki and colleagues found that supplementation with these antioxidants decreased levels of CPK, and important marker of muscle damage, twenty-four hours after a marathon. This finding suggests that they may limit tissue damage due to free radicals. Dr. William Evans from the University of Arkansas, a leader in this area, has suggested that antioxidants may be of benefit in the body's overall response and adaptation to exercise.
4. Set the Nutritional Stage for a Faster Recovery Following Your Workout
An important tenet of the NTS is nutritional intervention at all stages in the muscle's growth cycle. Increase muscle mass comes from a cycle of muscle stimulation, muscle breakdown, and muscle rebuilding. Every athlete knows the expression, No pain, no gain. This is true in the sense that you must train hard enough to cause a degree of muscle tissue disruption. However, training hard without appropriate nutrition intervention results in a more prolonged recovery and ultimately a weaker training response.
Although you cannot entirely prevent muscle damage and depletion of your energy stores during resistance exercise, by applying the principles of NTS you can minimize these effects, setting the stage for faster recovery.
As seen above, there is increased muscle protein degredation, in part to help supply muscle energy needs during exercise. Consuming protein during exercise will enable you to utilize the ingested protein and thereby decrease protein degredation and spare muscle protein. The same principle holds true with regard to muscle glycogen. Consuming carb during resistance exercise results in less depletion of glycogen stores.
The replenishment of muscle glycogen stores is an essentail cellular function that is given a metabolic priority by the muscles' anabolic machinery following exercise. The faster this process occurs, the quicker the muscle machinery can be reoriented toward the remodeling of your muscle fibers. The replenishment of your energy stores occurs much faster if you have limited their depletion during your workout by supplementing appropriately.
07-07-2005, 04:12 PM #6
a couple of question i have
- he suggests drinking a High GI carb drink before , during and after...wouldnt that shut down fat loss?...
-wouldnt the blood sugar go down after the High GI carbs are consumed?
-isnt tissue damage related to preformance?.....why does he say Vitc doesnt help in preformance then?
-protein during workout?? wouldnt that shift the blood from the muslces to the stomach to digest it?
07-07-2005, 04:22 PM #7
NTS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE ENERGY PHASE
Now that you recognize the importance of nutrient consumption during the Energy Phase, we would like you to redefine when your workout actually begins. For most, it begins with your warm-up stretching or first weightlifting rep. But there are a number of benefits to be gained if you begin your workout instead when you are driving to the gym. Consumption of a carb/protein drink ten minutes prior to your workout can raise both blood glucose and insulin levels. At the beginning of your workout, there will be an increase in glucose uptake into the muscles for use as energy, resulting in greater sparing of muscle glycogen and an increase in endurance. A second benefit is that consumption of a carb/protein drink immediately before exercise results in greater protein synthesis after exercise. A third potential benefit is that by raising the blood glucose level, you may reduce the rise in cortisol, which begins soon after your workout does
Nutrient supplementation immediately before exercise and continuing every fifteen to twenty minutes during exercise will not only improve your workout but also lay the groundwork for a faster recovery. Water will help replenish fluid, but a carb drink or, even better, a carb/protein drink will deliver additional benefits. If you are to take full advantage of the NTS, the ideal drink to consume before and during exercise should contain the ingredients...described below.
Carb supplementation druing exercise not only helps extend endurance, but also limits suppression of the immune system and reduces muscle tissue damage. The ideal carbs to use are high-glycemic ones such as sucrose, glucose and maltodextrin. Drinks that contain large quantities of fructose may cause gastrointestinal problems.
Consuming protein during your workout will limit muscle protein degredation. Protein can also work synergistically with carb to increase blood insluin levels beyond those produced by carb alone. Protein has been shown to extend exerceise endurance and the increase protein synthesis upon cessation of exercise. The protein of choice is whey because it is rapidly absorbed and contains all the essential ammino acids, as well as a high percentage of leucine and glutamine, two amino acids that are used extensively during sustained strenuous exercise. The ratio of carb to protein should be approx. 3-4 grams of carb to 1 gram of protein, as this formulation is highly digestible
*yes, different than what we say, but i dont think this book is targeted towards "chemically enhanced" individuals. there is a lengthy discussion of proper protein requirements in another chapter that i will post later*
This amino acid may also be of benefit in a sports drink because it not only stimulates insulin in its own right, but also has a positive effect on protein synthesis
Sodium, potassium, and chloride are also necessary in an effective sports drink. The addition of electrolytes not only helps replace what's lost due to sweating but also encourages continued fluid consumption because of the salt, which stimulates thirst.
Although many sports drinks contain varying amounts of different vitamins, we recommend adding vitamins E and C because they reduce free-radical levels, an important cause of muscle damage.
You should try to fully replace fluid and electrolyte losses that occur during a strength-training workout. Although strength training does not produce the same level of fluid loss as an endurance workout, fluid losses can still be considerable. Drink at least 12 ounces starting ten minutes before and continuing throughout your workout. For maximum effectiveness, consume several ounces of your Energy Phase beverage every fifteen minutes.
*let me rest a bit, and then go on to the Anabolic Phase...damn i hope somebody reads this...
07-07-2005, 04:28 PM #8-wouldnt the blood sugar go down after the High GI carbs are consumed?
my other questions remain tho...
07-07-2005, 04:39 PM #9
Goals for the ANABOLIC PHASE
1. Shift Metabolic Machinery from a Catabolic State to an Anabolic State
In Chapter 3, you learned the how important insulin is in regulating anabolic processes. Now, the most effective way to stimulate insulin release is to ingest high-glycemic sugars, right? Not exactly. While ingesting carb alone will accomplish the goal, it is nowhere near as effective as using a carb/protein supplement.
Use of a carb/protein supplement will stimulate insulin and blunt cortisol release. The synergistic effects of carb and protein were first noted almost forty years ago. In an effort to determine the effect of food on insulin secretion, scientists noted that foods high in protein, when combined with carbs, raised blood insulin levels more than other food combinations. Spiller and colleagues later followed up on this research by comparing the insulin response to carb drinks and carb/protein drinks. They showed that the addition of protein to a carb drink produced a far greater insulin response than a carb drink alone.
Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin extended these findings by comparing the effects of carb, protein, and carb/protein supplements on blood insulin levels after exhaustive exercise. The carb/protein drink produced the greatest insulin response followed by the carb drink and then the protein drink. In fact, the protein supplement by itself produced one-eighth as much insulin response as the carb/protein combination. Not only did the carb/protein produce a greater response, but it was also found that this response could be maintained throughout the recovery period with continued supplementation to drive the postworkout anabolic processes.
Stimulating insulin release is the first step in shifting the metabolic machinery to an anabolic state after exercise. Once high levels of insulin are achieved, a number of anabolic reactions are activated in the presence of the right nutrients. *gonna post often here, it's stormy outside, dont want a power surge to wipe out my typing *
07-07-2005, 05:19 PM #10AR Hall of Fame
- Join Date
- Dec 2002
I think it's great to have educational materials at this location, yes indeed. An archive on info. in which people can experiment/choose what works for them. Remember, there are a MYRIAD of different pre-wo, during, pwo schemes that people "tout" as being the best.
Being the best is actually nailing what it is YOU have to do.
My thoughts on these subjects are echoed here for reference.
------------> New PWO info, with references
07-07-2005, 05:31 PM #11
Good stuff Alpha....I jsut recently added a small Pre-WO shake, can't tell anything yet but the literature shows that its beneficial!
07-07-2005, 05:33 PM #12
2. Speed the Elimination of Metabolic Wastes by Increasing Muscle Blood Flow
Recovering muscle requires fast nutrient and oxygen delivery as well as fast removal of metabolic byproducts such as lactic acid. Removal of lactic acid is particularly important to the recovery of creatine phosphate (CP), the main precursor by which ATP is regenerated during resistance exercise. When lactic acid levels are high, it takes longer for CP to be restored. One of the little known but important effects of insulin is the increase of skeletal muscle blood flow. Laakso and colleagues showed that insulin could increase muscle blood flow approximately twofold.
The mechanism by which insulin increases skeletal muscle blood flow involves nitric oxide synthesis. Nitric oxide (NO) has lately received a lot of attention as a means to induce vasodilation (increase blood flow) in muscle. The precursor for NO is the amino acid arginine. A number of arginine products are currently available from manufacturers who tout their ability to increase NO production. Studies suggest that insulin is also a strong stimulator of the NO pathway. In one study, insulin infusion into the blood was shown to be more effective in increasing NO-dependent muscle blood flow than 30 grams of arginine.
3. Replenish Muscle Glycogen Stores
Some of the most important studies on exercise recovery have measured the effects of carbs on the replenishment of muscle glycogen stores postexercise. These studies have found that supplementing with carb immediately after exercise is much more effective than delaying supplementation. It has also been found that supplementing on a regular basis after exercise can maintain a rapid rate of glycogen storage during the early hours of recovery, and that carbs that produced the greatest insulin response also produce the highest rates of glycogen storage. In fact, the rate of muscle glycogen storage postexercise appears to be directly related to the blood insulin response. That is, the higher the insulin response the greater the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis.
Trying to increase the blood insulin level by simply increasing the carb content of the supplement was initially effective, but only up to a point. When the carb content of the supplement exceeded .5 grams of carb per pound of bodyweight per hour, both the blood insulin response and the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis plateaued.
After this plateau effect was discovered, a number of investigators, knowing that by stimulating a greater amount of insulin they would probably also stimulate a stronger surge in anabolic activity, began to investigate whether they could increase the level of insulin by adding one or more additional nutrients to carbs.
In a pivotal study at the University of Texas at Austin, researchers demonstrated that adding protein to a carb supplement could increase the effectiveness of the carb to stimulate muscle glycogen synthesis by increasing the blood insulin response. The carb/protein supplement was found to be almost 38% more effective in restoring muscle glycogen than a carb supplement and almost four times more effective than a protein supplement. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a sophisticated technique that evaluates the rate of muscle glycogen storage, these researchers also showed that a carb/protein supplement was significantly more effective than a carb supplement of equal caloric content. Interestingly, during the first forty-five minutes of recovery, muscle glycogen storage for the carb/protein supplement was two times faster than the carb supplement containing the same amount of calories.
In another study comparing the effects of a carb/protein drink to those of a carb drink, van Loon and colleagues at Maastricht University in the Netherlands found a near doubling of the insulin response to the former that was consistent with a near doubling of muscle glycogen storage.
The importance of rapidly replenishing muscle glycogen was clearly evidenced in a collaborative study that included researchers from North Texas State University School of Medicine and the University of Texas at Austin. When subjects consumed a carb/protein drink, endurance performance after four hours of recovery was 55% greater than when they consumed a carb drink. The increase in performance was directly related to greater muscle glycogen synthesis during the recovery period. Researchers in the Allied Health Science Center at Springfield College have also documented faster recovery and better performance in a subsequent workout when comparing carb/protein and carb supplements.
4. Initiate Tissue Repair and Set the Stage for Muscle Growth
Because net protein gain is a sum of both synthesis and breakdown, merely looking at protein synthesis as a measure of net protein gain can be misleading. To increase muscle mass and strength in the postworkout period, the muscle cell must begin to initiate tissue repair and to set the stage for muscle growth.
Researchers at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, reported that supplementing with a carb/protein supplement, both immediately and one hour after resistance exercise, increased muscle protein synthesis compared with a carb supplement. They noted higher blood insulin and glucose levels and lower 3-methylhistidine excretion following consumption of the carb/protein supplement. You may recall that 3-methylhistidine excretion is an indicator of muscle fiber damage.
Additional evidence of the positive effect of a carb/protein supplement on postexercise protein synthesis comes from Vanderbilt University. Investigators showed that a carb/protein supplement provided immediately after exercise increase protein synthesis almost sixfold over a carb supplement. The results for the all-important net protein balance were even more telling. The carb/protein supplement showed a significant increase in net protein balance compared with the carb supplement.
Intuitively, you might expect these results since protein synthesis requires amino acids, which obviously are not found in a carb supplement. A more interesting comparison would be between a carb/protein supplement and a protein supplement. The answer to this question comes from a recent study from the University of Texas Health Science Center at Galveston. Scientists evaluated the effects of a carb supplement, an amino acid supplement, and an amino acid/carb supplement on protein synthesis. The results were dramatic. The researchers found that protein synthesis was greatest with the carb/amino acid supplement and least with the carb supplement. In fact, the carb/amino acid supplement was 38% more effective than the amino acid supplement and 100% more effective than the carb supplement. This study, more than any other study, should convince you that the combination of carb and protein produces a synergistic effect on protein synthesis.
Consumption of a carb/protein drink postexercise may also replenish glutamine stores faster. Schoore and his colleagues from the University of Maastrich in the Netherlands provided either a carb/protein supplement or a carb supplement one and tow hours after exercise. Plasma glutamine levels decreased 20% in subjects receiving the carb alone and remained low in recovery. In subjects consuming the carb/protein supplement, postexercise glutamine levels did not decline.
5. Reduce Muscle Damage and Bolster the Immune System
The final goal of Nutrient Timing in the Anabolic Phase is to reduce muscle damage and stimulate the immune system. There is no way to eliminate all the muscle damage resulting from resistance exercise. In fact, to do so would even be undesirable since muscle damage serves as a stimulus for muscle growth. However, excessive muscle damage will restrict glycogen and protein synthesis, cause excessive muscle soreness, and delay recovery. Therefore, to the degree that you can limit muscle damage and reduce muscle soreness, you can come back stronger the next day. Here again, nutrition in the postexercise period plays a role. Using a carb/protein drink that also contained vitamins E and C and glutamine, researchers found a significant reduction in free-radical formation compared with a plain carb supplement.
Using the same multi-nutrient beverage composition, Siefert and colleagues at St. Cloud University reported a 37% reduction in blood CPK, and important marker of muscle damage, after a prolonged exercise bout.
One of the most exciting examples of how nutrition can reduce muscle inflammatory responses and positively impact the immune system comes from a recent collaborative study conducted by researchers from Iowa State, Vanderbilt University, and the United States Marine Corp. The researchers looked at the effect of placebo (no nutrients), a carb control, and a carb/protein supplement taken be Marine recruits after exercise over a fifty-four day period. Individuals receiving the carb/protein supplement experienced:
--33% fewer total medical visits
--28% fewer visits due to bacterial/viral infections
--37% fewer visits due to muscle joint problems
--83% fewer visits due to heat exhaustion
The researchers suggested that the effect of postexercise supplementation with a carb/protein supplement on the immune system may be related to the increased availability of specific amino acids such as glutamine, and concluded that the postexercise carb/protein supplement “may not only enhance muscle protein deposition but also has significant potential to positively impact health, muscle soreness and tissue hydration”
*more tomorrow, peace for now...
07-07-2005, 05:40 PM #13Originally Posted by SwoleCat
I wont flame...but research 1st!!!!!
The link you posted only showed ur opinions regarding PWO...wut do u think bout PRE? High GI or Low GI?
or would that depend on one's goals cutting bulking etc...?
07-07-2005, 06:05 PM #14AR Hall of Fame
- Join Date
- Dec 2002
I usually stay low-medium all the time, other than pwo, yup.
07-08-2005, 12:27 PM #15
dammit, got these pages scanned, converted to PDF, but i cant use the Tool Select option for some reason...anyone know about this stuff?
07-08-2005, 12:55 PM #16
Im guessing adobe treats the pages as pics since they are scanned so thats why you cant selet any text. Just attach the pdf files??
07-08-2005, 01:02 PM #17
they're too large, like 500-somethin' KB...what the hell? when i scanned it, it was a jpg file, but then i converted it to PDF, and can pull it up in Adobe Acrobat, so shouldnt i be able to use the Text Select tool????????? piece a crap...
07-08-2005, 01:45 PM #18
can you make it into jpg again and shrink the size so each page is maby 20kb?
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