Thread: Cocoa in hot water
07-13-2005, 05:10 AM #1
Cocoa in hot water
taken a couple of times per day, with no sugar, can lead to better training sessions because it contains caffeine and antioxidans that are stronger then the ones in green tea!!!
Is this true?
07-13-2005, 05:13 AM #2
damn thats interesting have to dig on it tomorrow when Im not working
07-13-2005, 05:45 AM #3Suppressive effects of cacao liquor polyphenols (CLP) on LDL oxidation and the development of atherosclerosis in Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
Kurosawa T, Itoh F, Nozaki A, Nakano Y, Katsuda S, Osakabe N, Tsubone H, Kondo K, Itakura H.
Toxicology Laboratory, Pharmaceutical Development Department, Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd., 760 Morooka-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 222-8567, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
We investigated the properties of cacao liquor polyphenols (CLP), which have an antioxidative effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and an anti-atherosclerotic effect in the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemic model, the Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbit. After 6 months of dietary administration of CLP at 1% (w/w) to the KHC rabbits, a higher total cholesterol concentration was observed in the treatment group compared to the control group. However, no other effects were noted in lipid profiles in plasma or lipoproteins. The plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which is a lipid-peroxidation index, was significantly decreased 1 month after the start of CLP administration compared to that of the control group. The antioxidative effect of CLP on LDL was observed from 2 to 4 months of administration. The area of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta in the CLP group (32.01+/-1.58%) was significantly smaller than that in the control group (47.05+/-3.29%), and the tissue cholesterol and TBARS concentrations were lower in the CLP group than in the control group. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of CLP was confirmed both rheologically and histopathologically. An in vitro study using KHC rabbit-derived LDL revealed that CLP significantly prolonged the lag time of LDL oxidation that was induced by a lipophilic azo-radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy)-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile (V-70), or Cu(2+) from a low concentration of 0.1 microg/mL. The antioxidative effect of CLP was superior to those of the well-known antioxidative substances, vitamin C, vitamin E and probucol. Therefore, CLP suppressed the generation of atherosclerosis, and its antioxidative effect appeared to have an important role in its anti-atherosclerotic activity.
PMID: 15777537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Influence of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on free radical-induced human erythrocyte hemolysis.
Zhu QY, Schramm DD, Gross HB, Holt RR, Kim SH, Yamaguchi T, Kwik-Uribe CL, Keen CL.
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8669, USA.
Cocoa can be a rich source of antioxidants including the flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and catechin, and their oligomers (procyanidins). While these flavonoids have been reported to reduce the rate of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in experimental animal models, little is known about their effect on human erythrocyte hemolysis. The major objective of this work was to study the effect of a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage on the resistance of human erythrocytes to oxidative stress. A second objective was to assess the effects of select purified cocoa flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, the procyanidin Dimer B2 and one of its major metabolites, 3'-O-methyl epicatechin, on free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. Peripheral blood was obtained from 8 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4 and 8h after consuming a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage that provided 0.25g/kg body weight (BW), 0.375 or 0.50g/kg BW of cocoa. Plasma flavanol and dimer concentrations were determined for each subject. Erythrocyte hemolysis was evaluated using a controlled peroxidation reaction. Epicatechin, catechin, 3'-O-methyl epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4beta > 8)-epicatechin (Dimer B2) were detected in the plasma within 1 h after the consumption of the beverage. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to hemolysis was reduced significantly following the consumption of the beverages. The duration of the lag time, which reflects the capacity of cells to buffer free radicals, was increased. Consistent with the above, the purified flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, Dimer B2 and the metabolite 3'-O-methyl epicatechin, exhibited dose-dependent protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 microM. Erythrocytes from subjects consuming flavonoid-rich cocoa show reduced susceptibility to free radical-induced hemolysis (p < 0.05).
07-13-2005, 05:47 AM #4
I guess we all knew it was good for the heart before. That its a stronger anti oxidant than vitamin e is the suprise for me. I wouldnt know if its stronger or weaker antioxidant then green tee but why not have both Bioflavonoids rocks
07-13-2005, 05:50 AM #5
maby it isnt such a hot antioxidant afterall
Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.
Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, Malloy MJ, Browne A, Chiu EY, Kwak HK, Milbury P, Paul SM, Blumberg J, Mietus-Snyder ML.
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 94143-0610, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). RESULTS: High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p < or = 0.001) but not in the low-flavonoid group (17.5 +/- 9 nmol/L, p = 0.99). CONCLUSION: Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.
07-13-2005, 05:51 AM #6
or maby it is
Cocoa has more phenolic phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine.
Lee KW, Kim YJ, Lee HJ, Lee CY.
Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
Black tea, green tea, red wine, and cocoa are high in phenolic phytochemicals, among which theaflavin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, and procyanidin, respectively, have been extensively investigated due to their possible role as chemopreventive agents based on their antioxidant capacities. The present study compared the phenolic and flavonoid contents and total antioxidant capacities of cocoa, black tea, green tea, and red wine. Cocoa contained much higher levels of total phenolics (611 mg of gallic acid equivalents, GAE) and flavonoids (564 mg of epicatechin equivalents, ECE) per serving than black tea (124 mg of GAE and 34 mg of ECE, respectively), green tea (165 mg of GAE and 47 mg of ECE), and red wine (340 mg of GAE and 163 mg of ECE). Total antioxidant activities were measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays and are expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacities (VCEACs). Cocoa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among the samples in ABTS and DPPH assays, with VCEACs of 1128 and 836 mg/serving, respectively. The relative total antioxidant capacities of the samples in both assays were as follows in decreasing order: cocoa > red wine > green tea > black tea. The total antioxidant capacities from ABTS and DPPH assays were highly correlated with phenolic content (r2 = 0.981 and 0.967, respectively) and flavonoid content (r2 = 0.949 and 0.915). These results suggest that cocoa is more beneficial to health than teas and red wine in terms of its higher antioxidant capacity.
07-13-2005, 05:53 AM #7
take your vitamin c along with the cocoa god I love vitamin c
Stabilizing effect of ascorbic acid on flavan-3-ols and dimeric procyanidins from cocoa.
Zhu QY, Hammerstone JF, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH, Keen CL.
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Cocoa flavanols and procyanidins have numerous biological activities. It is known that (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin (dimer B2), and epicatechin-(4beta-6)-epicatechin (dimer B5) are unstable at physiologic pH, degrading almost completely within several hours, whereas they are relatively stable at pH 5.0. The present study investigated the effects of ascorbic and citric acid on the stability of monomers and dimers in simulated intestinal juice (pH 8.5) and in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The addition of ascorbic acid to the incubation mixture significantly increased the stability of the monomers and dimers, whereas the addition of citric acid provided no protective effects. LC-MS showed that with the degradation of dimer B2 and dimer B5, doubly linked A-type dimers were formed. The present results, although not directly transferable to in vivo conditions, suggest that ascorbic acid may stabilize cocoa flavanols and procyanidins in the intestine where the pH is neutral, or alk****e, before absorption.
PMID: 12537465 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
07-13-2005, 05:59 AM #8
07-13-2005, 06:34 AM #9
07-13-2005, 06:40 AM #10Originally Posted by IronFreakX
my bad....it actually helps....
CONCLUSIONS: Ingested cocoa can prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity by modulating lipid metabolism, especially by decreasing fatty acid synthesis and transport systems, and enhancement of part of the thermogenesis mechanism in liver and white adipose tissue.
07-13-2005, 06:43 AM #11Originally Posted by IronFreakX
CONCLUSION: Dark, but not white, chocolate decreases blood pressure and improves insulin sensitivity in healthy persons.
07-13-2005, 06:56 AM #12
even more interesting. I think I will start to flavor my tasteless protein powder with cacao powder
07-13-2005, 08:05 AM #13
Damn sounds good, I may conductin an experiment with Low-carb milk, Coco and some splenda....Could make a nice night time treat.
07-13-2005, 09:42 AM #14
Yeah, I was thinking of throwing it into my choc flavoured shakes....
But I have to find one without added sugar, and with a list of ingrediants, which ain't gonna be easy in Croatia or Sweden huh Johan?
07-13-2005, 09:54 AM #15
But why does it have to be HOT water?
Last edited by bor; 07-13-2005 at 10:07 AM.
07-14-2005, 12:42 AM #16
I can buy unsweetened cocoa with full ingredient list in just about every store here So ONE thing sweden does have
acctualy I think full ingrediants list is required of all foods here.
I dont think the water has to be hot. But it tastes better in hot water would be curious though if the heat can ruin the flavonols.
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