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  1. #1
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    IGF-1 abstracts.

    Im just readin through a bunch of these on medline...posting some that seem interesting.


    Institution
    Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    Title
    Insulin -like growth factor-I enhances cell-based repair of articular cartilage.

    Source
    Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume. 84(2):276-88, 2002 Mar.

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    Abstract
    Composites of chondrocytes and polymerised fibrin were supplemented with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) during the arthroscopic repair of full-thickness cartilage defects in a model of extensive loss of cartilage in horses. Repairs facilitated with IGF-I and chondrocyte-fibrin composites, or control defects treated with chondrocyte-fibrin composites alone, were compared before death by the clinical appearance and repeated analysis of synovial fluid, and at termination eight months after surgery by tissue morphology, collagen typing, and biochemical assays. The structure of cartilage was evaluated histologically by Toluidine Blue reaction and collagen type-I and type-II in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. Repair tissue was biochemically evaluated by DNA assay, proteoglycan quantitation and characterisation, assessment of collagen by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and collagen typing using cyanogen bromide digestion and peptide separation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results at eight months showed that the addition of IGF-I to chondrocyte grafts enhanced chondrogenesis in cartilage defects, including incorporation into surrounding cartilage. Gross filling of defects was improved, and the tissue contained a higher proportion of cells producing type-II collagen. Measurements of collagen type II showed improved levels in IGF-I-treated defects, supporting in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical assessments of the defects. IGF-I improves the repair capabilities of chondrocyte-fibrin grafts in large full-thickness repair models.

  2. #2
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    ANOTHER

    Institution
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Title
    Phenotypic expression of equine articular chondrocytes grown in three-dimensional cultures supplemented with supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin -like growth factor-1.

    Source
    American Journal of Veterinary Research. 63(2):301-5, 2002 Feb.

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on morphologic and phenotypic responses of chondrocytes. SAMPLE POPULATION: Articular cartilage obtained from 2 young horses. PROCEDURE: Chondrocytes were suspended in fibrin cultures and supplemented with 25, 12.5, or 0 mg of IGF-1/ml of fibrin. Chondrocyte morphology and phenotypic expression were assessed histologically, using H&E and Alcian blue stains, immunoreaction to collagen type I and II, and in situ hybridization. Proteoglycan content, synthesis, and monomer size were analyzed. The DNA content was determined by bisbenzimide-fluorometric assay, and elution of IGF-1 into medium was determined by IGF-1 radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Both 12.5 and 25 kg of IGF-1/ml enhanced phenotypic expression of chondrocytes without inducing detrimental cellular or metabolic effects. Highest concentration of IGF-1 (25 microg/ml) significantly increased total DNA content, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, GAG synthesis, and size of proteoglycan monomers produced, compared with cultures supplemented with 12.5 microg of IGF-1/ml or untreated cultures. Histologic examination confirmed these biochemical effects. Matrix metachromasia, type-II collagen in situ hybridization and immunoreaction were increased in cultures treated with 25 microg of IGF-1/ml, compared with cultures supplemented with 12.5 microg of IGF-1/ml or untreated cultures. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Chondrocytes exposed to high concentrations of IGF-1 maintained differentiated chondrocyte morphology and had enhanced synthesis of matrix molecules without inducing apparent detrimental effects on chondrocyte metabolism. These results suggest that application of such composites for in vivo use during cartilage grafting procedures should provide an anabolic effect on the grafted cells.

  3. #3
    Swellin Guest
    Okay, to clarify..........it helped.

    Nice article bro.

  4. #4
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    BOOOO

    Institution
    Continuum Electromechanics Group, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

    Title
    Transport and binding of insulin -like growth factor I through articular cartilage.

    Source
    Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 415(1):69-79, 2003 Jul 1.

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    Abstract
    This study focused on the role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) in cartilage on the transport and binding of IGF-I within the tissue. We have developed experimental and theoretical modeling techniques to quantify and contrast the roles of diffusion, binding, fluid convection, and electrical migration on the transport of IGF-I within cartilage tissue. Bovine articular cartilage disks were equilibrated in buffer containing 125I-IGF-I and graded levels of unlabeled IGF-I. Equilibrium binding, as measured by the uptake ratio of 125I-IGF-I in the tissue (free plus bound) to the concentration of labeled species in the buffer, was found to be consistent with a first-order reversible binding model involving one dominant family of binding sites within the matrix. Western ligand blots revealed a major IGF binding doublet around 23 kDa, which has been previously shown to coincide with IGFBP-6. Diffusive transport of 125I-IGF-I through cartilage was measured and found to be consistent with a diffusion-limited reaction theoretical model incorporating first-order reversible binding. Addition of excess amounts of unlabeled IGF-I during steady state transport of 125I-IGF-I resulted in release of bound 125I-IGF-I from the tissue, as predicted by the diffusion-reaction model. In contrast, addition of the low-affinity Des(1-3)IGF-I analog did not result in release of bound 125I-IGF-I. Application of electric current was used to augment transport of IGF-I through cartilage via electroosmosis and electrophoresis. Taken together, our results suggest that a single dominant substrate family, the high-affinity IGFBPs, is responsible for much of the observed binding of IGF-I within cartilage. The data suggest that intratissue fluid flow, such as that induced by mechanical loading of cartilage in vivo may be expected to enhance IGF transport by an order of magnitude and that this increment may help to counterbalance the restrictions encountered by the immobilization of IGFs by the binding proteins.

  5. #5
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    Institution
    Rheumatology Research Laboratory, University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    Title
    Growth factors and cartilage repair. [Review] [29 refs]

    Source
    Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. (391 Suppl):S244-50, 2001 Oct.

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    Abstract
    Growth factors are obvious tools to enhance cartilage repair. Understanding of reactivities in normal and arthritic cartilage and potential side effects on other compartments in the joint will help to identify possibilities and limitations. Growth factor responses have been evaluated in normal and diseased murine knees. The main cartilage anabolic factor, insulinlike growth factor-1, shows great safety, but has little contribution in diseased cartilage because of insulinlike growth factor nonresponsiveness of arthritic chondrocytes. Transforming growth factor-beta can overrule interleukin-1 catabolic effects and can enhance cartilage repair in arthritic tissue, unlike bone morphogenetic protein-2 that only is capable of enhancing chondrocyte proteoglycan synthesis in the absence of interleukin-1. Transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic protein-2 induce chondrophyte formation at the margins of the joint. Studies with scavenging transforming growth factor beta soluble receptor identified endogenous transforming growth factor-beta involvement in spontaneous cartilage repair and chondrophyte and subsequent osteophyte formation in arthritic conditions. Osteophyte induction may hamper intraarticular transforming growth factor-beta application in the joint and warrants targeted growth factor application to cartilage lesion sites only. [References: 29]

  6. #6
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    This seems promising just for future thought

    Institution
    Department of Experimental Medicine I, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

    Title
    Fibroblast-mediated delivery of growth factor complementary DNA into mouse joints induces chondrogenesis but avoids the disadvantages of direct viral gene transfer.

    Source
    Arthritis & Rheumatism. 44(8):1943-53, 2001 Aug.

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    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the advantages and disadvantages of a direct adenoviral and a cell-mediated approach to the induction of cartilage formation in joints by transfer of growth factor genes. METHODS: Adenoviral vectors carrying insulin -like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) complementary DNA were constructed and applied to primary human and murine chondrocytes or fibroblasts. Transgene expression was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Direct injection of these vectors or AdLacZ, a reporter gene vector, into mouse knee joints was compared with the transplantation of syngeneic fibroblasts (infected ex vivo with the same vectors) with respect to virus spread, immune response, and cartilage formation by use of histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses. RESULTS: AdIGF-1 and AdBMP-2 efficiently infected all cell types tested. Human cells secreted biologically relevant levels of protein over a period of at least 28 days. Direct transfer of AdLacZ into mouse knee joints resulted in positively stained synovial tissues, whereas AdLacZ-infected fibroblasts settled on the surface of the synovial membranes. Inadvertent spread of vector DNA into the liver, lung, and spleen was identified by nested polymerase chain reaction in all mice that had received the vector directly; this rarely occurred following fibroblast-mediated gene transfer. Direct injection of AdBMP-2 induced the synthesis of new cartilage in periarticular mesenchyme, accompanied by extensive osteophyte formation. When AdBMP-2 was administered by injecting ex vivo-infected fibroblasts, cartilage formation was observed only in regions near the injected cells. AdIGF-1 treatment did not lead to morphologic changes. Importantly, fibroblast-mediated gene transfer avoided the strong immune response to adenovirus that was elicited following direct application of the vector. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that cell-mediated gene transfer provides sufficient BMP-2 levels in the joint to induce cartilage formation while avoiding inadvertent vector spread and immune reactions.

  7. #7
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    Seeks compression or stressed tissue.. ( i know these are all in vitro but it still applies to response in presence of )

    The development and maintenance of healthy joints is a complex process involving many physical and biological stimuli. This study investigates the interaction between insulin -like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and static mechanical compression in the regulation of articular cartilage metabolism. Bovine cartilage explants were treated with concentrations of IGF-I from 0 to 300 ng/ml in the presence or absence of 0-50% static compression, and the transient and steady-state incorporation of [(3)H]proline and [(35)S]sulfate into matrix components were measured. In parallel studies, cartilage explants were treated with 0-300 ng/ml IGF-I at media pH ranging from 6.4 to 7.2 and the steady-state incorporation of [(3)H]proline and [(35)S]sulfate was measured. The effect of 50% static compression on IGF-I transport was determined by measuring the uptake of (125)I-labeled IGF-I into cartilage explants. Static compression decreased both [(3)H]proline and [(35)S]sulfate incorporation in a dose-dependent manner in the presence or absence of IGF-I. IGF-I increased [(3)H]proline and [(35)S]sulfate incorporation in a dose-dependent manner in the presence or absence of compression, but the anabolic effect of the growth factor was lessened when the tissue was compressed by 50%. The response of cartilage explants to IGF-I was similarly lessened in unstrained tissue cultured in media at pH 6.4, a condition which results in a similar intratissue pH to that when cartilage is compressed by 50%. The characteristic time constant (tau) for IGF-I stimulation of cartilage explants was approximately 24 h, while tau for inhibition of biosynthesis by static compression was approximately 2 h. Samples which were both compressed and treated with IGF-I demonstrated an initial decrease in biosynthetic activity at 2 h, followed by an increase at 24 h. Static compression did not alter tau for (125)I-labeled IGF-I transport into cartilage but decreased the concentration of (125)I-labeled IGF-I in the tissue at equilibrium. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

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