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  1. #1
    helios's Avatar
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    Harvard Study: Poverty Does Not Breed Terrorism

    Here's an interesting read...




    http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/...05-terror.html

    Freedom squelches terrorist violence
    KSG associate professor researches freedom-terrorism link
    By Alvin Powell
    Harvard News Office

    A John F. Kennedy School of Government researcher has cast doubt on the widely held belief that terrorism stems from poverty, finding instead that terrorist violence is related to a nation's level of political freedom.

    Associate Professor of Public Policy Alberto Abadie examined data on terrorism and variables such as wealth, political freedom, geography, and ethnic fractionalization for nations that have been targets of terrorist attacks.

    Abadie, whose work was published in the Kennedy School's Faculty Research Working Paper Series, included both acts of international and domestic terrorism in his analysis.

    Though after the 9/11 attacks most of the work in this area has focused on international terrorism, Abadie said terrorism originating within the country where the attacks occur actually makes up the bulk of terrorist acts each year. According to statistics from the MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base for 2003, which Abadie cites in his analysis, there were 1,536 reports of domestic terrorism worldwide, compared with just 240 incidents of international terrorism.

    Before analyzing the data, Abadie believed it was a reasonable assumption that terrorism has its roots in poverty, especially since studies have linked civil war to economic factors. However, once the data was corrected for the influence of other factors studied, Abadie said he found no significant relationship between a nation's wealth and the level of terrorism it experiences.

    "In the past, we heard people refer to the strong link between terrorism and poverty, but in fact when you look at the data, it's not there. This is true not only for events of international terrorism, as previous studies have shown, but perhaps more surprisingly also for the overall level of terrorism, both of domestic and of foreign origin," Abadie said.

    Instead, Abadie detected a peculiar relationship between the levels of political freedom a nation affords and the severity of terrorism. Though terrorism declined among nations with high levels of political freedom, it was the intermediate nations that seemed most vulnerable.

    Like those with much political freedom, nations at the other extreme - with tightly controlled autocratic governments - also experienced low levels of terrorism.

    Though his study didn't explore the reasons behind the trends he researched, Abadie said it could be that autocratic nations' tight control and repressive practices keep terrorist activities in check, while nations making the transition to more open, democratic governments - such as currently taking place in Iraq and Russia - may be politically unstable, which makes them more vulnerable.

    "When you go from an autocratic regime and make the transition to democracy, you may expect a temporary increase in terrorism," Abadie said.

    Abadie's study also found a strong connection in the data between terrorism and geographic factors, such as elevation or tropical weather.

    "Failure to eradicate terrorism in some areas of the world has often been attributed to geographic barriers, like mountainous terrain in Afghanistan or tropical jungle in Colombia. This study provides empirical evidence of the link between terrorism and geography," Abadie said.

    In Abadie's opinion, the connection between geography and terrorism is hardly surprising.

    "Areas of difficult access offer safe haven to terrorist groups, facilitate training, and provide funding through other illegal activities like the production and trafficking of cocaine and opiates," Abadie wrote in the paper.

    A native of Spain's Basque region, Abadie said he has long been interested in terrorism and related issues. His past research has explored the effect of terrorism on economic activity, using the Basque country as a case study.

    Abadie is turning his attention to the effect of terrorism on international capital flows. Some analysts have argued that terrorist attacks wouldn't have much of an impact on the economy, since unlike a war's widespread damage, the damage from terrorist attacks tends to be relatively small or confined to a small area.

    In an era of open international capital markets, however, Abadie said terrorism may have a greater chilling effect than previously thought, since even a low risk of damage from a terrorist attack may be enough to send investors looking elsewhere.

    alvin_powell@harvard.edu

  2. #2
    CAUSASIAN's Avatar
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    I agree with the article 100%, Oppression Breeds Terrorism, lack of freedom breeds terrorism, wheather it be Palestine or Chechnya.
    Last edited by CAUSASIAN; 11-09-2004 at 04:07 AM.

  3. #3
    Will Power's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by CAUSASIAN
    I agree with the article 100%, Oppression Breeds Terrorism, lack of freedom breeds terrorism, wheather it be Palestine or Chechnya.
    Interesting twist, but what if a politicaly negotiated solution is possible, yet terror is opted as the negotiating tool of choice. What if dialog and compromise are available yet terror is opted as the method of the day. What if one side wants peace but the other is unyielding in there demand to eliminate the other. Weather Chechen, or Palestinian there is always another choice to terrorism, regardless, and without exception.

  4. #4
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    Poverty doesn't breed terrorism. Look at Africa. The poorest people on the planet live there, and they don't run around blowing up things.
    Education breeds terrorism. EDUCATION.

  5. #5
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    There are more deaths by violence in Africa than any other country in the world. Look at Rwanda where 800,000 people died, when Tutsis fought the Hutus.

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    Quote Originally Posted by CAUSASIAN
    There are more deaths by violence in Africa than any other country in the world. Look at Rwanda where 800,000 people died, when Tutsis fought the Hutus.
    Are those fightings terrorism, or war?

    How many suicide bombers orginiated in Africa?

  7. #7
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    Terrorism or war, same thing. Either way thousands of civlians died. Africa is ignored because it is not in the news. But the most violence that happens in the world today is in Sub Saharan Africa.

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1288230.stm

  8. #8
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    More and more Rak

  9. #9
    Will Power's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by CAUSASIAN
    There are more deaths by violence in Africa than any other country in the world. Look at Rwanda where 800,000 people died, when Tutsis fought the Hutus.
    I don't remember any one on either side of that conflict being blown to bits while minding there own business, can you get some references?

  10. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by Rak_Ani
    How many suicide bombers orginiated in Africa?
    Last time I checked suicide bombing is not the only definition of terroism. Terrorism is attacks on civilians, by any means.

  11. #11
    CAUSASIAN's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Will Power
    I don't remember any one on either side of that conflict being blown to bits while minding there own business, can you get some references?
    Are you kidding me? Do you even know about this conflict? Each side was killed just because of who they were, the Tutsi's being the victims more often.

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    Quote Originally Posted by CAUSASIAN
    Are you kidding me? Do you even know about this conflict? Each side was killed just because of who they were, the Tutsi's being the victims more often.
    I did ask for references didnt I.

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    CAUSASIAN's Avatar
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    Watch this slideshow -

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3594187.stm

    Or type in Rwanda Genocide anywhere.

    Not the mention the genocide and terrorism in West Africa due to the diamond trade.

  14. #14
    Will Power's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by CAUSASIAN
    Watch this slideshow -

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3594187.stm

    Or type in Rwanda Genocide anywhere.

    Not the mention the genocide and terrorism in West Africa due to the diamond trade.
    I cannot, and will not deny that's some gruesome horrific sheit. But the question remains, is it poverty or education that breeds terror. Now even the slide show you presented, graphic as it was, demonstrated that it was hate related radio, and cultural, and political influences that set off and perpetuated the carnage.
    So in short I still am not convinced that poverty breeds terror.

  15. #15
    CAUSASIAN's Avatar
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    I never said poverty breeds terror, oppression and lack of freedom breed freedom fighters, and if they are pushed to their limits that breeds terrorism.

    I was arguing about the fact that terrorism doesnt happen in Africa, when in fact that continent sees the most terrorism that is not mentioned by the media, because to be truthful, the media is racist, against the blacks of Africa, who are biggest victims of crime. By everyone one, not only victimized by Whites, but by Middle Easterns themselves. But Europeans being the most horrible in the crimes in Africa.

  16. #16
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    Quote Originally Posted by CAUSASIAN

    I was arguing about the fact that terrorism doesnt happen in Africa, .
    No one said terrorism doesn't happen in Africa. But the Africans are the poorest people in the world and still you don't see them running around the world blowing up things. Yes, there are wars in Africa. In most one of the sides is Muslims...

  17. #17
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    Not exactly.

    South Africa its blacks against the whites.

    In Zimbabwe its political differences.

    In Liberia its political differences.

    In Senegal its political differences.

    In Guinea Bissau its politcal differences.

    In Seirre Leone its politcal differences.

    In the Central African Republic its ethnic violence.

    In Congo its political and ethnic differences.

    In the Demoractic Republic of Congo its ethnic differences.

    In Angola its race, ethnic, and political differences.

    In Sudan its muslims against Muslims.

    In Nigeria its Muslims against Christians.

    Dont belive everything your media machine tells you.

  18. #18
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    Quote Originally Posted by Rak_Ani
    No one said terrorism doesn't happen in Africa. But the Africans are the poorest people in the world and still you don't see them running around the world blowing up things. Yes, there are wars in Africa. In most one of the sides is Muslims...

    Africa is hellaciously violent. Period. People who have nothing to loose, will risk it all.

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