12-19-2004, 09:55 PM #1
The Basics Of PERIODIZATION - RoNNy THe BuLL
WHERE DID PERIODIZATION COME FROM?
Let's go through the history real brief. Periodization was developed in the 1950's and 1960's to give Eastern Bloc countries and advantage in preparing for international competitions. Aspects of Periodization have also been used in the United States going back to 1960.
DOES IT WORK?
Yes. Two studies back it up; 1) Stone et al., 1981 (Footbal Players improvements in LBM and Strength - Periodization vs. Standard Routine) & 2) Willoughbhy, 1993 (Changing Training Rep Range In Squatting vs. Standard Routine).
Stone (1981) - A Hypothetical Model For Strength Training - Journal Of Sport Medicine & Physical Fitness, 21, 342-351.
Willoughby (1993) - The Effects Of Mesocycle-Length Weight Training Programs Involving Periodization Adn Partially Equated Volumes On Upper And Lower Body Strength - Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research, 7(1): 2-8
To increase muscle size, stress the muscle beyond it's normal capabilities. Easy.
Sufficient recovery of msucle groups between training sessions is necessary for gains in strength and muscle size to take place. Yep, easy again.
Training in a fashion that will bring adaptations geared towards improving your performance on a specific activity or task. IE, Bench Press, Sprint, Vertical Leap, etc...
Variety in the training program is the cornerstone for Periodization. Variety, variety, variety!
Whenever training is stopped, gains begin to erode. Intensely train before you detrain and you'll notice little to no loss in gains during your detraining period. Yeeeeeeep! Look up ******'s article "Overtrain To Gain" for a more indepth approach to this whole issue.
For any training program to result in optimal gains, it must address an individuals strength, weaknesses and previous injuries as well as their goals and needs. Simple enough.
THINGS THAT CAN BE CHANGED IN A TRAINING PROGRAM
- number of reps per set
- weight or resistance used
- number of sets per exercise
- exercises performed
- exercise order
- rest periods between sets and exercises
- rest periods between training sessions
TRAINING PHASES OF PERIODIZATION
1) Preperation Phase
2) First Transition
3) Competition Phase
4) Second Transition (Active Rest)
Traditional American Terminology
2) In Sease
American Strength/Power Terminology
4) Active Rest
They're all pretty self explanatory.
12-19-2004, 10:13 PM #2
And some nice quotes from other articles....
Influence of Resistance Training Volume and Periodization on Physiological and Performances Adaptations in Collegiate Women Tennis Players
American Journal of Sports Medicine, Sept, 2000 by William J. Kraemer, Nicholas Ratamess, Andrew C. Fry, Travis Triplett-McBride, L. Perry Koziris, Jeffrey A. Bauer, James M. Lynch, Steven J. Fleck
"Perhaps the most significant finding was that the periodized training group significantly increased their serve velocity at 4 and 9 months, whereas the single-set group showed no significant changes. The women who participated in this study were competitive collegiate tennis players matched for tennis playing ability. Tennis is a physiologically demanding sport that requires power, speed, balance, agility, coordination, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance."
Periodization training with building blocks - calendaring the exercises
Running & FitNews, Nov, 2000 by Joe Signorile
"Some of us run very contentedly for fun, fresh air, regular exercise and the health benefits it provides. Others run to compete and achieve improvements in performance that result in new personal bests. If you are in that category, periodization is the tool you need to train efficiently, avoid overtraining, and systematically bring Out the best in your efforts."
Resistance training basics: the what, why and how of a complete fitness program - includes related information and quiz
American Fitness, May-June, 1994 by Judith Baker
"The acute variables of sets, repititions, rest periods and load significantly affect the intensity of the resistance training program. Intensity is defined as power output, or how much work (force X distance) is accomplished in a training session. Traditionally, high-intensity programs involve high weight/low repetition, and low intensity programs involve low weight/high repetition. Low-intensity programs minimize muscle soreness for beginners and allow them to focus on propoer form and technique. To help keep intensity low for beginners, coach them to perform slow, controlled movements ad correst their errors in form and technique. Intensity can then be increased by increasing weight, decreasing rest periods and increasing speed of training."
Variation strategies in strength training
Coach and Athletic Director, October, 2004 by Ken Mannie
"The incorporation of systematic change-ups in volume, intensity, exercise selection, set/rep schemes, and frequency will abet the athletes' physical development and keep the workouts fresh and challenging, regardless of training philosophy."
12-21-2004, 06:56 AM #3Anabolic Member
- Join Date
- Jun 2004
Good read Ronnie, I am a firm advocate of periodization techniques and have been doing it now for over 5 years.
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